Al-Khulafa Ur Rashidun Part 1 >> Umar (RA)

Before his death, Abu Bakr consulted the senior companions of the Prophet and selected Umar as the second Khalifah of the Muslims.
Umar was the son of Khattab and he is famous in Islamic history as Al-Faruq (one who distinguished between right and wrong). His acceptance of Islam is notable and was mentioned earlier in the Prophet’s biography.
Umar was a very brave and straight-forward person. He was tough in his attitude and uncompromising in basic principles. He was a great and talented ruler. During his Caliphate, the frontiers of the Islamic state expanded greatly.
Umar was a strong disciplinarian. He noticed the tremendous popularity of Khalid, the commander-in-chief of the Muslim forces, and feared the people might think too highly of him. So he removed Khalid and appointed Abu Uhaidah as the Commander-in-Chief. The other reason for this bold decision was to make it clear that no-one was indispensable and victory in war was actually due to Allah’s help. According to Allama Shibli Nu’mani the deposition of Khalid took place in 17 AH after the conquest of Syria. Some historians, however, maintain that this was the first mandate of Khalifah Umar.
Khalid , who had given the title of the Sword of Allah (Saifullah) by the Prophet, gracefully accepted the Khalifah’s order and worked as an ordinary under Abu Ubaidah. This is an example of the Islamic teaching of obedience to leadership.
Khalid had left Muthanna in command of the Muslim forces on the Iraqi front when he rushed to Yarmuk. Muhanna was finding it difficult to counter the enemy and went personally to Madinah to ask Abu Bakr fro reinforcements. Abu Bakr was by then on his death-bed.
Muthanna’s absence from Iraq made things worse. The Persians regrouped and, under the command of Rustam, recaptured the Muslim-occupied areas. Rustam sent out two columns of his army, one to Hirah and the other to Kasbar.
Umar sent Abu Ubaidah, the Commander, to deal with the situation and he defeated both the Persian columns. Rustan dispatched a till larger force, including elephants, under the command of General Bahman. The two armies fought and the Muslims were defeated.
Khalifah Umar raised another large army and Muthanna regrouped the defeated troops. The put up a valiant fight and the Persians were defeated this time.
However, the Persian court raised a larger army still, and forced Muthanna to withdraw. The report of the new situation was sent to Umar and reinforcements were sent under Sa’d Bin Qadisiyah. After a prolonged battle on several fronts, the outnumbered Muslim army defeated 120,000 0ersian troops and recaptured Hirah and other areas in 14 AH (636 CE).
Muslims laid siege to Damascus during Khalifah Abu Bakr’s term of office. They continued after Abu Bakr’s death and the siege lasted 70 days during the rule of Umar. After this long siege, Khalid took the Romans by surprise and entered the city. They Governor surrendered and a peace treaty was signed.
Meanwhile, Amr Ibnul As was laying siege to Jerusalem. Later, Khalid, Abu Ubaidah and others joined him there. The Christians had little hope and decided to give in. They put forward a proposal to the Muslims that they would hand over the city if Khalifah Umar himself came to Jerusalem.
The proposal was relayed to Madinah and the Khalifah agreed to go to Jerusalem. He started out for the city with one attendant, riding a camel. They rode the camel in turns. Sometimes the Khalifah would ride and the ruled have equal rights. The rulers of the Islamic state must acknowledge the rights of the citizens over their own rights.
The Khalid of the Muslims entered Jerusalem dressed in ordinary clothes and flanked by the Muslim generals. The Christians could hardly believe that the Muslim leader had arrived; such was the simplicity of Umar. He used to live like a very humble ordinary man but he was tough, and the most able ruler of his time. He had no pride, no pomp and no grandeur. This is the teaching of Islam. This is what present-day Muslim rulers have forgotten and what we must restore and get back.
An agreement was signed that guaranteed the safety and security of the Christians in Jerusalem.
During the Khalifah of Umar, vast areas of roman and Persian empires and the whole of Egypt were brought under Islamic rule. Umar was a gifted orator. He was very concerned for the welfare of the citizens under his rule and left a memorable legacy for Muslims after him.
The second Khalifah Umar died after being stabbed by a Persian non-Muslim, Firoz, nick-named Abu Lu’lu complained to Umar about his master Mughirah bin Shu’bah who imposed a tax on him. Umar heard the detail of complaint and told Firoz that the tax was reasonable. This made Firoz angry and the next day during the dawn prayer he struck the Khalifah with a dagger six times, wounding him fatally. Umar Al-Faruq died three days later in 23 AH (644 CE).
Before his death, Umar appointed a six-man Committee to elect his successor from among themselves. The six members of the Committee were: Uthman bin Affan, Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Ali bin Abi Talib, Zubair bin Awwan, Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas, and Talhah bin Ubaidullah .
Umar Al-Faruq ruled the Islamic state for ten years, six months and four days.
Umar’s advice
1. Do not be misled by someone’s reputation.
2. Do not judge a person only by his performance of Salah and sawm; rather look into his truthfulness and wisdom.
3. One who keeps his secrets controls his affairs.
4. Fear the person whom you hate.
5. Prudent is he who can assess his actions.
6. Do not defer your work for tomorrow.
7. He who has no idea for evil can easily fall into his trap.
8. Judge a man’s intelligence by the questions he asks.
9. Less concern for material well-being enables one to lead a free life.
10. It is easier not to indulge in sins than to repent.
11. Contentment and gratitude are two great virtues; you should not care which one you are gaining.
12. Be grateful to him who points your defects.


Added: Dec-30-2015
Editor: user2
Views: 446
Category: Al-Khulafa Ur Rashidun Part 1
Title: Umar (RA)
Author: article_author1
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Saying Astaghfirullah (3 Times) After Prayer

Translation:

(1)
‘I ask Allah for forgiveness.’
(2)
‘O Allah, You are As-Salam and from You is all peace, blessed are You, O Possessor of majesty and honor.’