Al-Khulafa Ur Rashidun Part 1 >> Abu Bakr (RA)

(Right guided Caliphs)
Now that the Prophet is no more, who will lead the Islamic community? That was the question in the minds of all those present at the Masjidun Nabi. It was a crucial matter. A community cannot continue without a leader. Something must be decided before Allah’s messenger was finally put to rest in the grave.
This proved the importance of leadership, without which a community becomes disarranged and indiscipline and then loses its potential and prospects.
There was much discussion on the question of leadership. After discussion and argument, Abu Bakr was elected unanimously as the leader of the Muslim community. He was the first to succeed the Prophet and was the first Khalifah (Caliph or successor to the Prophet) of the Muslims. Who else could lead the Muslim community at this crucial time except Abu Bakr? He was the closest friend of the Prophet and he acted as the Prophet’s deputy, leading the prayers when the Prophet was ill.
After the election of the Khalifah, the Prophet was buried on the night of 13 Rabi ul-Awwal in the 11th year of the Hijrah.
Abu Bakr’s real name was Abdullah and he was given the title of As-Siddiq (testifier to the truth). His father, "Uthman, was known as Abu Quhafah and his mother Salma was known as Ummul Khair. He was two and a half years younger than Muhammad (pbuh).
After his election as the Khalifah, Abu Bakr addressed the Muslims with these words:
“O people, I have been chosen by you as your leader, although I am no better than any one of you. If I do any good, give me your support. If I do any wrong, set me right.
Listen, truth is honesty and untruth is dishonesty.
The weak among you are the powerful in my eyes, as long as I do not get them their due. The powerful among you are weak in my eyes, as long as I do not take away from them what is due to others.
Listen carefully, if people give up striving for me cause of Allah, He will send dwon disgrace upon them. If a people become evil-doers, Allah will send down calamities upon them.
Obey me as I obey Allah and His messenger. If I obey Allah and His messenger, tou are free to disobey me.”
Abu Bakr was asking people to him only if he obeyed Allah and His messenger. Such was the first Khalifah of the Muslims! Indeed, the world would be a better place to live in if we had leaders like Abu Bakr.
He was the first among the prophet’s friends to accept Islam and he accompanied the Prophet during the Hijrah to Madinah.
Abu Bakr was a merchant. He freed many slaves, including Bilal and Umayya Bin Qahaf. He participated in all the battles which the Prophet had to fight against unbelievers.
Abu Bakr loved his faith more than anuthing else. At Badr, his son Abdur Rahman was fighting on the side of the unbelievers. After accepting Islam, Abudur Rahman once said to his father, “O father, at Badr, you were twice under my sword, but my love for you held my hand back, “To this, Abu Bakr replied,” Son, if I had you only one under my sword, you would have been no more,” He was uncompromising in his faith.
At the time of the battle of Tabuk, he donated all his belongings to the War Fund and when the Prophet asked, “What have you left for your family?” he replied, “Allah and his messenger.”
Before his death, the Prophet nominated Usamah Bin Zaid to lead an expedition to Syria against the Roman (then called Byzantine) army on the northern border of Arabia. The Romans killed the envoy of the Prophet and refused to accept any negotiated settlement. Usamah could not go on because of the death of the Prophet. Abu Bakr sent Usamah or the expedition even though he had to attend to all the internal problems of the Islamic state.
The news of the Prophet’s death made some new Muslims think that the Islamic state would crumble and they refused to pay the zakah. These new Muslims could not get used to their new faith and its requirements until then. Abu Bakr declared. “By Allah! Even if a single baby goat is due from a man, he must give it. If he refuses I will declare war against him.”
Some others became renegades and imposters. Tolaihah, Musailimah, Malik Bin Nuwairah, ‘Aswad Al-Ansi and a woman named Sajah claimed they were prophets and created a great deal of confusion. Abu Bakr was quick to take strong action against these imposters. Khalid Bin Walid was sent to deal with Tolaihah who fled to Syria and later became a Muslim Malik Bin Nuwairah was killed.
Irkimah and Shurahbil were sent to take action against Musailimah, but they were defeated and Abu Bakr dispatched Khalid to tackle the notorious Musailimah who married Sajah. In the fight that followed, Wahshi, the killer of Hamzah at Uhud, killed Musailimah, Washi, who became a Mulim after the conquest of Makkah, had regretted killing compensated for his earlier mistake.
Musailimah and aswad claimed to be prophets while Muhammad (pbuh) was alive.’ Aswad was taken care of by the Muslims of Yemen during the Prophet’s lifetime.
Abu Bakr’s swift and bold steps saved the Islamic state from the serious threat of chaos and confusion. He could now attend to other urgent problems.
During his Khilah (Caliphate), Abu Bakr had to take action against the Persian Empire. The emperor of Persia, Khusru Parvez (Chosroe), tore up the letter the Prophet sent to him through Abdullah bin Hudhafah and demanded that the Prophet be arrested. However, Khusru was murdered by his son and the whole empire fell into chaos and disorder. Hurmuz, the Persian governor in Iraq, was very hostile to Arabs and he was cruel to the Muslims living in his area.
Abu Bakr sent Muthanna to take action against the Persians in Iraq. His forces were insufficient and Khalid was then sent with reinforcements. The Muslim army captured vast areas of the Persian Empire in several battles.
Khalifah Abu Bakr then turned his attention to the Romans who were causing trouble on the Islamic state’s north-western borders. The Prophet himself led an expedition against the Romans and this is known as the Battle of Mu’tah.
Abu Bakr dispatched four separate armies under Abu Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah, ‘Amr Ibnul’As. Yazid bin Abi Sufian and Shurahbil bin Hasnah to deal with Roman power.
The four generals merged themselves into a unit to face the Romans most effectively. The Romans had amassed 150,000 soldiers but the total Muslim army was only 24,000. Reinforcements were requested and Abu Bakr asked Khalid to hand over the command of the Iraqi front to Muthanna and rush to the Syrian front to help fight the colossal Roman army.
Abu Bakr fell ill during this time and he died on 21 Jumadal Ukhra 13 AH (22 August 634 CE). His rule had lasted two years and three months. The aemies met in Yarmuk after Abu Bakr’s was the collection and collation of Al-Qur’an.
Abu Bakr lived a simple, pious and upright life. He was a true servant of Allah and a meticulous follower of the Prophet.
Abu Bakr’s advice to the Muslim army
1. Always fear Allah; He knows what is in men’s hearts.
2. Be kind to those who are under you and treat them well.
3. Give brief directions; directions that are too long are likely to be forgotten.
4. Improve your own conduct before asking others to improve theirs.
5. Honor the enemy’s envoy.
6. Maintain the secrecy of your plans
7. Always speak the truth, so that you get the right advice.
8. Consult your men when you are free to do so; this will develop participation.
9. Take suitable measures to keep a watch on the army.
10. Be sincere to all with whom you deal.
11. Give up cowardice and dishonesty.
12. Give up bad company.


Added: Dec-30-2015
Editor: user2
Views: 359
Category: Al-Khulafa Ur Rashidun Part 1
Title: Abu Bakr (RA)
Author: article_author1
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Dua to Say When in Fear of People

Translation:

‘O Allah, protect me from them with what You choose.’