Life of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) >> Hudaibiyah Agreement

In the sixth year of the Hijrah, the Prophet announced his intention to pay a visit to Al-Ka'ba in Makkah for a short pilgrimage ('Umarah). He set out with 1400 of his followers who were under strict orders not to carry any weapons, except their traveler's swords.

The Quraish of Makkah knew full well that the only purpose of the Prophet's visit was for pilgrimage, but how could they let the Muslims enter Makkah when they had not been able to enter Madina? The Muslims, they decided, must be stopped.
Plans were put in land. The top generals - Khalid and Ikrimah - were alerted to be ready with their armies to stop the Prophet and his followers from entering Makkah.
The Muslims continued their journey to Makkah until they had reached a placed called Hudaibiyah. Steps were in the to find out what sort of mood the Quraish were in; it was clear they were in the mood for battle.
The Quraish on their part gathered information about the strength and armory of the Muslims and realized they had come for no other purpose than the pilgrimage to Al-Ka'bah. Envoys were sent from each side. The Prophet made his intentions crystal clear to the Quraish through his envoy but the Quraish maltreated the Muslim envoy and threatened the Muslims. The patience of the Muslims was put to severe test. They could teach the Quraish a good lesson even with their traveler's swords, but Allah's Prophet or dared them to show extreme restraint.
The Quraish were in no mood to allow the Muslims in for the pilgrimage that year. They made it an issue of prestige and pride. It was humiliating for the Muslims, but what could they do? Allah's messenger was their leader and all his steps were guided by Allah, so they had to be followed.
Eventually, after intense negotiations, and agreement between the Quraish and the Prophet was signed. This agreement is the Hudaibiyah agreement.
The conditions were :
A. The Muslims would not visit Makkah that year, but would come a year later and remain there days only.
B. There would be one sided extradition - the Makkans taking refuge with the Prophet would be handed over on demand to the Quraish, but Muslims taking refuge in Makkah would not be handed over to the Prophet.
C. There would be peace for ten years and during this period Muslims could go to Makkah and Ta'if and the Quraish could go to Syria through the Muslim areas.
D. Each party would remain natural in the event of a war between the other and a third party.
E. Any tribe wishing to sign an agreement with either the Muslims or the Quraish would be able to do so.
The terms of the agreement were apparently against the Muslims, but they turned out to the favorable for them in the end.
The Muslims were disheartened but they were soon given the news of victory by Allah. It was revealed: "Surely we have granted you a clear victory." (48:2)
In what way was this one sided treaty a victory? The treaty eased the long years of tension and made possible the intermingling of the two parties. The Makkans could now come to Madinah and stay with the Muslims; this provided an opportunity for the Muslims to influence the stone heartedness of the Makkans. In fact, during the years that followed the Hudaibiyah treaty, the number of new Muslims increased dramatically. Khalid Bin Walid, who later became the most famous general in Islamic history, and Amr Ibnul As, the conqueror of Egypt, became Muslims during this time.
The treaty proved beyond doubt that the Prophet and the Muslims stood for peace. It also paved the way for the escape of the detained on the extradition clause was later dropped on the initiative of the Makkans.
The Hudaibiyah agreement also opened the way to the conquest of Makkah in 630 CE - the eighth year of Hijrah.


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Category: Life of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
Title: Hudaibiyah Agreement
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